Calendars or Almanacs: तिथि-पत्र या कैलेंडर

तिथि-पत्र या कैलेंडर

ग्रेगोरियन कैलेंडर दुनिया का सबसे व्यापक रूप से इस्तेमाल किया जाने वाला नागरिक कैलेंडर है जो सारणीबद्ध है और नक्षत्रों के अनुसार आधारित नहीं होता है। सूर्य के चारों ओर पृथ्वी की क्रांति 365.2422 दिन में संपन्न होती है। इस 0.2422 दिन का हिसाब करने के लिये प्रति 4 वर्षों में फरवरी माह में 1 दिन जोड़ 28 की जगह 29 दिन कर दिये जाते हैं जिसे लीप वर्ष कहा जाता है। लेकिन हर 4 वर्ष में 1 दिन जोड़ने से 0.0078 प्रति वर्ष अधिक जुड़ जाता है। उसे ठीक करने में हर 100 वें वर्ष को लीप वर्ष नहीं किया जाता लेकिन हर 400वें वर्ष को लीप वर्ष कर दिया जाता है। उदाहरण के लिए वर्ष 1604, 1608, 1612 … लीप वर्ष हैं पर वर्ष 1700, 1800 और 1900 लीप वर्ष  नहीं हैं; लेकिन वर्ष 2000 लीप वर्ष है। आने वाले समय में वर्ष 2020, 2024, 2028 … लीप वर्ष हैं पर वर्ष 2100, 2200 और 2300 लीप वर्ष नहीं हैं; लेकिन वर्ष 2400 लीप वर्ष है।

हिन्दू कैलेंडर की तिथियां ग्रेगोरियन कैलेंडर से भिन्न होती हैं। ग्रेगोरियन कैलेंडर के विपरीत जो बारह चंद्र चक्र (354 चंद्र दिन) और लगभग 365 सौर दिनों के बीच विसंगति को समायोजित करने के लिए चंद्र महीने में अतिरिक्त दिन जोड़ता है, हिंदू कैलेंडर चंद्र महीने की अखंडता को बनाए रखता है,  लेकिन यह सुनिश्चित करने के लिए कि त्यौहार और फसल से संबंधित अनुष्ठान उचित मौसम में आते हैं, हर तीन वर्षों में जटिल नियमों से एक अतिरिक्त पूर्ण महीना जोड़ता है । इस अतिरिक्त पूर्ण महीने को पुरुषोत्तम मास कहा जाता है।

हिन्दू कैलेंडर परंपरागत रूप से भारत में उपयोग किए जाने वाले विभिन्न क्षेत्रीय चंद्रमा-सूर्य कैलेंडर के लिए एक सामूहिक शब्द है। वे टाइमकीपिंग के लिए एक समान अंतर्निहित अवधारणा अपनाते हैं, लेकिन चंद्रमा चक्र या सूर्य चक्र के सापेक्ष महत्व में भिन्न होते हैं। नए साल को कब शुरू माना जाये तथा महीनों के नामों में भी भिन्नता है। हिन्दू कैलेंडर वैदिक ज्ञान से जुड़े हैं; खगोल-विज्ञान व ज्योतिष-शास्र का अभिन्न हिस्सा रहे हैं और 6000 वर्षों से अधिक पुराने हैं।

हिन्दू कैलेंडर अपनी स्वयं सुधारक क्षमता के चलते, ग्रेगोरियन कैलेंडर के मुकाबले भूगौलिक व नक्षत्रीय टाइमकीपिंग के लिए अधिक शुद्ध व यथार्थ-वादी है। हिंदू त्यौहारों की तिथी चंद्रमा की स्थिति पर आधारित हिंदू कैलेंडर से आंकलित की जाती है; जिसके चलते हिंदू त्यौहार हर वर्ष ग्रेगोरियन कैलेंडर की विभिन्न दिनांकों पर पड़ते हैं।

एक सच्चे और मजबूत हिंदू वैदिक कैलेंडर के स्थान पर एक गलत और कमजोर ग्रेगोरियन कैलेंडर का उपयोग, आक्रामकों द्वारा छोड़ी गयी एक शाही विरासत नहीं अपितु छलावा है, जिसे हम  भारतीय, “अंतरराष्ट्रीय मानकों” के नाम पर जारी रखे हुए हैं।

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English version follows:

अंग्रेज़ी संस्करण आगे है:

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Calendars or Almanacs

The Gregorian calendar is the world’s most widely used citizen calendar which is tabular and not founded according to the constellations. Earth’s revolution around the Sun takes 365.2422 days. Each year is typically taken as 365 days. In order to account for this 0.2422 days, 1 day is added to February every 4 years and the year with February having 29 days instead of 28 days is called a Leap Year. But adding 1 day every 4 years adds an extra 0.0078 day a year. Every 100th year is thus not a leap year in correcting this extra, but for further correction, every 400th year is a leap year. For example 1604, 1608, 1612 … were leap years, but the year 1700, 1800 and 1900 were not leap years; yet the year 2000 was a leap year. In the coming years 2020, 2024, 2028 … are leap years, but the years 2100, 2200 and 2300 are not leap years; yet the year is 2400 will be a leap year.

The dates of the Hindu calendar are different from the Gregorian calendar. Unlike the Gregorian calendar, which adds an extra day in the every lunar month to adjust the discrepancy between the twelve lunar chakra (month – 354 moon days) and about 365 solar days, the Hindu calendar maintains and ensures the integrity of the lunar month. In order to ensure that the festivals and customs related to crops fall in the proper season, an extra full month is added once in every three years adds through a set of complex rules. This extra month is called “Purushottam” Maas (month).

Hindu calendar is a collective term for traditional regional moon-sun calendars used in India customarily. They adopt a similar underlying concept for timekeeping, but the relative significance between the the Moon cycle and the Sun cycle varies. There are differences in names of months and the commencement of New Year also. Hindu calendars are associated with Vedic knowledge; and have been an integral part of Astronomy and Astrology for more than 6,000 years.

Because of its self correcting ability, the Hindu calendar is more pure and precocious for geographical and constellation timekeeping than the Gregorian calendar. The dates of Hindu festivals are calculated from the Hindu calendar based on the position of the moon; because of which Hindu festivals fall on different dates of the Gregorian calendar every year.

Use of an inaccurate and frail Gregorian calendar in place of a more truthful and robust Hindu Vedic calendar is an Imperial legacy inflicted by the aggressors which we, the Indians, continue to tag along in the name of “international standards.”

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Sustainability – Topical Interest in Vedic Conscience

The new buzz word doing rounds in political circles, advocacy groups, UN charters, strategy think-tanks, compliance and reporting standards and everywhere else is SUSTAINABILITY.

From times immemorial, Hindus have always believed in sustainability. It is a part of the social and cultural ethos of the Hindus to draw the very bare minimum from the Mother Nature (mahābhūta, the “great” or “gross” elements in Hinduism’s sacred literature; nature-worship including treating every element of nature as a God and religious ceremony precedes any extraction of resources from nature); followed by every effort to replenish and refurbish what has been drawn besides responsible consumption and recycling. Caring for an ecological balance is enabled by worshiping all kinds of celestial bodies, water-bodies, rivers, mountains, plants and animals. Defiling the nature or any non-sustainable behaviour is a social and religious taboo. (That the Hindus have forgotten their own ancient Vedic wisdom while the west is beginning to adopt some of it is another story).

Many Indians, born in the 60’s or earlier would recall, using the 5 Ser (later on 4 kg) empty tin cylindrical canisters of ‘Vanaspati’ ghee (particular brand of Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil sold by a multi-national – always in tins and never as loose) as storage bins for provisions in the kitchen. These empty canisters were also recycled and converted into floatation tanks (after small ‘kachcha’ welding to make it airtight) akin to life jackets for learning to swim. One could get the canisters converted or even buy the already converted from the shops.

Things changed as Indians began emulating the western culture of ‘use and throw.’ Prior to the 70’s, Indians would reuse, recycle and recover everything that they used or consumed. They would never discard anything unless they were sure there was no further use for them. Even while discarding, they would sell it to ‘raddiwalakabbadiwala’ (aggregators, who would in turn sell the trashed materials to recyclers) rather than dump it as urban waste.

‘Use and Throw’ is a very western and capitalistic concept which has been completely alien to the Hindu Ethos. It is the western greed for standards of living in disregard to and at the cost of quality of life which has resulted into non-sustainability of human activity. The same Western nations are now busy designing and advocating the 17 Sustainability Development Goals. A closer look at SDG reveals that they are not beyond the Hindu way of life.

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Precariat – Appreciating the Rise of This Social Class

The richest 1 per cent in India cornered 73 per cent of the wealth generated in the country last year, a worrying picture of rising income inequality. Besides, 67 crore Indians comprising the population’s poorest half saw their wealth rise by just 1 per cent, as per the survey released by the international rights group Oxfam. The situation appears even grimmer globally, where 82 per cent of the wealth generated last year worldwide went to the 1 per cent, while 3.7 billion people that account for the poorest half of population saw no increase in their wealth. That the global picture is worse than what it is for India can be a very fragile solace.

In sociology and economics, the precariat is a social class formed by people suffering from precarity, which is a condition of existence without predictability or security, affecting material or psychological welfare. Specifically, it is the condition of lack of job security, including intermittent employment or underemployment and the resultant precarious existence.

In pursuit of competitiveness, governments have implemented policies of labor flexibility, making labour more insecure, leaving millions without health care, pensions or other benefits. Governments have turned to means-tested social assistance and to workfare. The welfare state has withered. The precariat has emerged from the liberalisation that underpinned globalisation. It consists of a multitude of insecure people, living bits-and-pieces lives, in and out of short-term jobs, without a narrative of occupational development, including millions of frustrated educated youth who do not like what they see before them, millions of women abused in oppressive labour, growing numbers of criminalised tagged for life, millions being categorised as ‘disabled’ and migrants in their hundreds of millions around the world. They are denizens; they have a more restricted range of social, cultural, political and economic rights than citizens around them.

Precariat is a new dangerous class-in-the-making, internally divided into angry and bitter factions, who face overlapping challenges of unemployment, low income and loss of social security. Most in it do not belong to any professional or craft community; they have no social memory on which to call, and no shadow of the future hanging over their deliberations with other people, making them opportunistic. The biggest dangers are social illnesses and the risk that populist politicians will play on their fears and insecurities to lure them onto the rocks of neo-fascism, blaming ‘big government’ and ‘strangers’ for their plight.

So far, the precariat in Europe has been mostly engaged in EuroMayDay parades and loosely organised protests. But this is changing rapidly, as events in Spain and Greece are showing, following on the precariat-led uprisings in the middle-east. Recent political discourse directed at the Precariat shaping the success in the election outcomes of the US, France and Philippines show the strength of this emerging class. Precariats face insecurity, instability and vulnerability. This tribe is as much anti-state as it is anti-business.

A progressive strategy for the precariat must involve more equitable control over other key assets of a tertiary society – quality time, quality space, knowledge and financial capital. There is no valid reason for all the revenue from financial capital going to tiny elite who have a particular talent to make money from money. The only way to reduce income inequality in an open market society is to ensure an equitable distribution of financial capital.

This article draws on “The Precariat: The New Dangerous Class” by Guy Standing

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